The Idu Mishmi Tribe (Tiger Tribe): Guardians of Wildlife in Arunachal Pradesh

Throughout history, hunting has been a fundamental human activity for securing food. However, in modern times, it disrupts the delicate balance of nature. In the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India, the Idu Mishmi tribe stands out for their unique tradition of wildlife conservation.

Watch the full video to learn more about Idu Mishmi tribe culture.

About Idu Mishmi Tribe

The Idu Mishmi call the Dibang Valley and Lower Dibang Valley districts their home. You can also find them in parts of Lohit and Upper Siang districts. Their villages are scattered amidst the beautiful Mishmi Hills, bordering Tibet. They are one of the major sub-groups of the larger Mishmi people, known for their rich culture and deep connection to nature.

The Idu Mishmi have a unique way of life. They traditionally live in houses built on stilts, using bamboo, wood, and local leaves. The Idu Mishmi language, a vital part of their cultural heritage, is unfortunately considered endangered by UNESCO. This is a reminder to preserve their traditions for future generations.

From Necessity to Taboo: A Shift in Hunting Practices

The Idu Mishmi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh is known for their strict hunting restrictions and reverence for wildlife conservation. The Idu Mishmi tribe is unique. Unlike others, they’ve woven environmental protection right into their traditions. Special rules and customs, like hunting restrictions, help them live peacefully alongside nature.

Aangii: A System of Sustainable Hunting

When hunting is absolutely necessary, the Idu Mishmis follow a strict code called Aangii (or ena) to minimise its impact. These restrictions apply to the entire household, not just the hunter, fostering a sense of shared responsibility.

Here’s a table outlining some key Aangii restrictions:

Limited household activities (washing clothes, weaving, knitting)Ensures focus and minimises distractions for the hunt.
Social restrictions (intimacy between hunter and wife)Promotes a sense of ritual and seriousness surrounding the hunt.
Respecting the natural order (menstruating women not handling supplies)Acknowledges the interconnectedness of life and the importance of maintaining balance.

These restrictions come into effect when a hunter plans a hunt and must be followed for a specified duration after the hunter’s return, typically up to five days.

Misu: Animals Off Limits

Certain animals, considered bad omens (Misu), are completely off-limits for hunting. This showcases the Idu Mishmis’ deep respect for the natural world and their belief in the interconnectedness of all living things. These forbidden animals hold cultural significance and are revered by the Idu Mishmi tribe. The taboo against hunting these animals underscores the tribe’s deep respect for nature and its inhabitants.

Ancestral Bond with Tigers: A Unique Conservation Effort

The Idu Mishmis have a fascinating belief system surrounding tigers. They view tigers as kin, descended from the same ancestor as humans. Hunting a tiger is seen as akin to killing a brother, bringing misfortune upon the community. This belief plays a crucial role in tiger conservation, even when tigers prey on the Idu Mishmis’ prized livestock. While the loss is significant, the cultural connection to the forest and its creatures takes precedence.

Also, Idu Mishmis protest Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary’s conversion to a tiger reserve (National Tiger Conservation Authority) fearing restricted access to forests for livelihood and traditions.


The Idu Mishmis offer a powerful example of how cultural traditions and beliefs can promote conservation and respect for the environment. Their practices offer valuable lessons for the modern world, demonstrating that living in harmony with nature is not only possible, but essential. Share your thoughts by contacting us.


  1. What is the Idu Mishmi Dance from Arunachal Pradesh?

    The Idu Mishmi of Arunachal Pradesh have several dances. Some celebrate harvests and daily life, while others are ritual dances performed by priests during ceremonies like the Reh festival. There’s also a fertility dance performed during the Rren ceremony.

  2. What is Idu Mishmi’s Origin?

    Idu Mishmi origins are debated. One theory suggests migration from Tibet, aligning with their language family. Another, less common view, proposes migration from Burma.

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